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Frankrikes norra järnväg - Historia

Frankrikes norra järnväg - Historia


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Nord-Pas-de-Calais

Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Franska uttal: [nɔʁ pɑ d (ə) kalɛ] (lyssna)) är en före detta administrativ region i Frankrike. Sedan den 1 januari 2016 har den varit en del av den nya regionen Hauts-de-France. [2] Den bestod av avdelningarna i Nord och Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais gränsar till Engelska kanalen (väster), Nordsjön (nordväst), Belgien (norr och öster) och Picardie (söder). Majoriteten av regionen var en gång en del av de historiska (södra) Nederländerna, men blev gradvis en del av Frankrike mellan 1477 och 1678, särskilt under regeringstiden av kung Louis XIV. De historiska franska provinserna som föregick Nord-Pas-de-Calais är Artois, Franska Flandern, Franska Hainaut och (delvis) Picardie. Dessa provinsbeteckningar används fortfarande ofta av invånarna.

Med sina 330,8 personer per km 2 på drygt 12 414 km 2 är det en tätbefolkad region med cirka 4,1 miljoner invånare, 7% av Frankrikes totala befolkning, vilket gör den till den fjärde folkrikaste regionen i landet, varav 83% bor i urbana samhällen. Dess administrativa centrum och största stad är Lille. Den näst största staden är Calais, som fungerar som ett stort kontinentalt ekonomiskt/transportcentrum med Dover i Storbritannien 42 kilometer bort, vilket gör Nord-Pas-de-Calais till den närmaste kontinentala europeiska förbindelsen till ön Storbritannien. Andra större städer inkluderar Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Dunkirk, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai och Saint-Omer. Regionen finns i många filmer, inklusive Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.


Railroad History & amp Preservation - USA och Kanada

American Steam Railroad Preservation Association - Ideell utbildningsorganisation som ägnar sig åt att bevara, visa och driva historisk järnvägsutrustning, inklusive Frisco ånglok # 1352

American Time Table and Train Order System, The - Historien om telegrafens nyckelroll i ett unikt nordamerikanskt järnvägssystem

Amtrak Historical Society - Bevara Amtraks historia

Järnvägsmuseers sammanslutning - Leder i framsteg för järnvägsarv genom utbildning och påverkansarbete

Auktioner på eBay - 100 000+ samlarföremål och railroadiana -föremål inklusive vintageannonser, kartor, tidtabeller, biljetter, lagerbevis, klockor, klockor, skyltar, lyktor, bestick, lås, kläder och mer

Birney Safety Car Museum - Historia, foton och modeller av Birney -enbilsvagnen som utvecklades på 1910 -talet

Bridgehunter.com - Databas över historiska broar och tunnlar i hela USA

Broar, stationer och tunnlar - Guide till de tidigaste, längsta, högsta och största järnvägsstrukturerna

Budd-RDC.org - Foton, historik och aktuell driftinformation om Budd Rail Diesel Cars (RDC)

Canada By Rail - Organisation av kanadensiska turistjärnvägar, museer, historiska samhällen, järnvägsresearrangörer, historiska järnvägsstationer och kulturarv

Canadian Railroad Historical Association (CRHA) - Bevarande och spridning av information om järnvägsarv i Kanada, med många divisioner som organiserar sina egna möten, projekt och aktiviteter

Canadian Railway Music - Lista över kanadensisk järnvägsmusik inklusive klassisk, folkmusik och countrysånger

Canadian Street Railways - Historien om gatubanor och interurbana elektriska järnvägar i Kanada

Carknocker Railroad Stories - Berättelser och foton av järnvägsmän

Carolwood Pacific Historical Society - Dedikerat för att bevara Walt Disneys gamla järnvägsarv

Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum - History of the Transcontinental Railroad and the linking the Central and Union Pacific Railroads on May 10, 1869 at Promontory Summit, Utah

Chapel Cars of America-Cirka tretton kyrkor på skenor som följde järnvägarna västerut från 1890 till 1940-talet och förde evangeliet och sakramenten till folket som lever längs spåren

Classic Streamliners - Artiklar och foton som firar vintage persontåg, privata järnvägsvagnar, tågresor, turistjärnvägar och mer

Conrail Cabins & Cabooses - Utbyta information om Conrails flotta av stugor och cabooser

Företagshistoria för järnvägar i Nordamerika - Företagsdiagram (familj) för att undersöka en viss familj eller enskilda namn på järnvägar

Dan's Wigwag Site - Historia, foton och platser för överlevande wigwag flagman grade crossing signaler i hela USA

Danger Ahead: Historic Railway Disasters - En undersökning av betydande järnvägsolyckor från de tidigaste dagarna med järnvägstransporter till idag

Diesels From Schenectady - Tillägnad Alcos både tidigare och nuvarande med foton och information

Driving the Last Spike - Historia från Museum of the City of San Francisco

Tidiga järnvägar - Rekord och förstas för järnvägsbyggande och drift i USA och världen över

F40PH Preservation Society - Bevarar historia och artefakter relaterade till Amtraks F40PH -diesellok

Fallna flaggor och andra järnvägsfoton - Omfattande fotogallerier från fallna flaggor i hela Nordamerika

FallnFlags - Pre Burlington Northern locomotive photos, särskilt som täcker Great Northern Railroad inkluderar Great Northern Sky Blue och Orange färgscheman, Northern Pacific, Spokane Portland och Seattle och Burlington

Glömda järnvägar - Pågående projekt för forskning, spårning och kartläggning av järnvägsövergivenheter

Friends of the Burlington Northern Railroad - Historiskt samhälle fokuserade på BN och BNSF

Geared Steam Locomotive Works - Bevara och marknadsföra information om nordamerikanska byggda ånglok inklusive Shay, Heisler, Climax, Byers, Gilbert, Dunkirk, Willamette, Davenport, Baldwin, Bell och mer

International Society for the Conservation of Women in Railroading - Resande utställning ger ett pedagogiskt inblick i kvinnornas järnvägssports värld

Iron & Steel Industry Special Interest Group - Grupp för dem som är intresserade av stålverkens järnvägar och även stålverket själva är både prototypfläktar och modellerare välkomna

John W. Barriger III National Railroad Library - Specialbibliotek inom St. Louis Mercantile Library vid University of Missouri - St. Louis

Johnson Farebox Company - Historia och foton av Johnson och Cleveland fareboxar som hittades i många vagnar, spårvagnar och bussar fram till 1960 -talet

Locomotive Records - Guide till de tidigaste, snabbaste, tyngsta, största och mest kraftfulla ånglokalen

Loggning av järnvägar i Nordamerika - Lista över alla kända skogsavverkningar i Nordamerika

Merchant Navy Locomotive Preservation Society - Tillägnad MNLPS: s verksamhet, ägare och operatörer av MN Class loco 35028 "Clan line"

Merci Train - Bilder och historia av tåget med 49 bilar fylld med gåvor, som Frankrike gav USA 1948

Mike's Railway History - Omfattande historia om världens järnvägar till mitten av 1930 -talet av Michael Irlam

Multimodalways Railroad Archives - Samling av skannade kartor, spårdiagram och olika dokument från tidigare och nuvarande nordamerikanska järnvägar

National Railway Historical Society (NRHS) - Officiell plats för USA: s nationella historiska organisation

North American Railcar Operators Association - Dedikerat för bevarande och säker, laglig drift av järnvägsutrustning, historiskt använd för underhåll av sätt

North American Railroad Family Trees - Kronologi för föregångare från nordamerikanska järnvägar

Northern Pacific Railway Historical Association - Dedikerat att bevara historien om Amerikas första norra transkontinentala järnväg

Old Time Trains - Bevara kanadensiskt järnvägsarv med artiklar, berättelser, fotografier och mer

Pacific Railway Act, The - En 1862 -handling för att hjälpa till med byggandet av en järnväg och telegraflinje från Missouri River till Stilla havet

PCC Car - Not So Standard - Historia och foton av PCC -bilar

PCC Cars - Bilder och information om PCC -bilar av Gerard Scheltens

Pennsy Railcar Restorations LLC-Ger rådgivning på plats och på plats för förvärv, transport och restaurering av järnvägsvagnar

Bevarade nordamerikanska elektriska järnvägsvagnar - sökbar databas med bevarade nordamerikanska elektriska järnvägsvagnar med bilspecifikationer, ägarhistoria och foton

Pullman Library - Över en miljon ritningar, originalspecifikationer, korrespondens, foton och dokumentation som avser Pullman och Pullman -Standard passagerar- och godsvagnar Illinois Railway Museum, Union, Illinois

Railroad and Streetcar Historical Markers - Lista över järnvägsrelaterade vägkanter och andra permanenta markörer med text, foton, kartor, detaljerad platsinformation och kommentarer

Railroad Car History - Publicerar elektroniska böcker om järnvägsvagnar och relaterade ämnen

Railroad Evangelistic Association-Icke-konfessionell, icke-partisk kristen järnvägsstipendium

RailRoad Genealogical Society - Dedikerat för att lokalisera, sammanställa och bevara alla poster som rör anställda på Amerikas historiska järnvägar

Railroad Heritage Blog - Täcker både modern och vintage järnväg, med utrustning, rundturer, vintagefoton och bevarandenyheter

Järnvägskartarkiv - Historiska järnvägskartor från hela USA, tillgängliga gratis från University of Alabama

Railroad Maps Collection - Över 600 järnvägskartor från 1828-1900 från Library of Congress arkiv

Railroad Nicknames - Guide till smeknamn till tidigare och nuvarande nordamerikanska järnvägar

Railroad Police - Främjar historien om järnvägspoliseringen

Railroad Signal Site - Detaljerade foton och beskrivningar av söklys, colorlight, peruk wag och gyralight järnvägssignaler

Järnvägssignalering och kommunikation - Foton och information om en mängd olika järnvägssignaler och kommunikationsutrustning

Railroad Station Historical Society, Inc - Sammanställningar av befintliga järnvägs- / järnvägsstrukturer i USA och Kanada, historisk forskning om depåer, referenser om järnvägsstrukturer och mer

Järnvägsstations hemsida, The - Avsatt för arkitekturen och historien för järnvägsstationer runt om i världen

Järnvägshistorier - Samling av järnvägshistorier från slutet av 1800 -talet och början av 1900 -talet

Railroad.net - Dussintals railfan -forum, vykort, prototypfotogalleri med mera

RailroadRob.net - Gamla järnvägspostkort och dokument, spårvagnstjänstens historia i Grand Rapids MI, och en guide till hotell och orter av särskilt intresse för järnvägsfanter och järnvägsresenärer

Railway & Locomotive Historical Society - Främjar forskning och uppmuntrar till bevarande av dokumentation som rör affärshistoria, ekonomi, arbetshistoria, biografi och teknik

Järnvägsposttjänst - Historik om postleverans med järnväg, från USPS

Railway Preservation News - Online journal of railway history and conservation, redigerad av Bob Yarger

Railways in Music - History of railways in music, av Philip Scowcroft

Railways of Canada Archives - Bevara kanadensisk järnvägshistoria med dussintals artiklar och foton

RailwaySurgery.org - Bevarar järnvägskirurgens och sjukhusens historia och informerar allmänheten om deras arbete och bidrag till medicin

Rare Map Collection - Historiska järnvägskartor tillgängliga online från University of Georgia

Spela in järnvägsrutter - Guide till de högsta, brantaste och längsta järnvägskvaliteterna världen över

Richard Leonards järnvägsarkiv - Foton och kommentarer om ånglok som kördes på 1950 -talet på nordamerikanska järnvägar inklusive CB&Q, CPR, GTW, IC, NKP, NYC och UP

Richard's Parlor Car - ägnat åt historien om olika nordamerikanska personbilar, mestadels kanadensiska, CNR, HLR och några amerikanska

Richard's Planet Sleeping -Car - Historisk information och data om olika sov- och salongbilar som drivs av Canadian National, Canadian Pacific och Pullman i Kanada, USA och Mexiko

RRSignal.com - Information och foton på signaler, CTC -utrustning, reläer och mer

Semaphores.com - Omfattande lista över levande och museiska semaforer, foton, semaforhistoria och mer

Slim Rails - Bilder och information om smalspåriga järnvägar inklusive Carson & Colorado, Durango & Silverton, East Tennessee & Western North Carolina och East Broad Top

St. Nicholas Mountain-En av sex högfönster observationsbilar byggda av American Car & Foundry för Mid-Century Empire Builder, som nu genomgår restaurering för privata järnvägsvagnar

Ånga i Amerika - Täcker utsikterna för fungerande och nästan fungerande ånga i Amerika, samt lyfter fram några bevarade ånglok och reliker

SteamLocomotive.com - Omfattande guide till överlevande ånglok i Nordamerika, inklusive motorer som för närvarande är igång och under restaurering

Streamliner Memories - Järnvägsbroschyrer, annonser, tidtabeller, menyer och biljetter från 1950- och 60 -talen

Streamliner Scheman - Scheman för streamliners från mitten av 1930 -talet till slutet av 1960 -talet

Tap Lines - Erbjuder skannade järnvägsböcker för historiker och modellerare inklusive officiella guider, utrustningsregister och lokbyggnadslistor på CD och DVD

Tekniskt samhälle för järnvägsoperationer Säkerhet och signalering - Fokus på säkerhet och signalering inkluderar listning av järnvägsnamn, vrak-/incidentinformation och historisk information om signalering och betygsövergångar

The Birney Car - Online bok med vagtlistor och historia om spårvagnar av staten

Caboose -sidan - Foton av cabooses och information om deras användning

Dieselbutiken - Omfattande källa för vaktlistor och första generationens lok

The Yard Limit: American Diesel Switchers - Spotter's guide, fotogalleri, nyheter och mer

Tågfilmer-Guide till mer än 130 klassiska tågfilmer, många nu sällsynta och utgångna, inklusive detaljer om inspelningsplatser och presenterade järnvägar, stationer och utrustning

Tågrekord - Guide till de snabbaste, längsta och tyngsta tågen i USA och världshistorien

Tågvrak - Guide till de tidigaste, dödligaste och märkligaste tågvrak, kraschar, urspårningar och olyckor

Transkontinental järnväg, - Historien om ledarna, grundarna och arbetarna på Central Pacific Railroad

Transportplanering och tågsändning - Historisk och teknisk information om tågsändning, planering och förvaltning

Trolley Cars Dot Com - Restaureringsprojekt, bevarande och mer

True Story Of Casey Jones, The - Publicerad i "Erie Railroad Magazine" (april 1928)

Union Pacific Historical Society - Bevarande av Union Pacific Railroad historia från början 1862 till operationen som den är idag

Union Pacific History & Photos - History of the Union Pacific (UP) Railroad, historisk järnvägsutrustning och foton

Vagel Kellers Industrial Heritage hemsida - Historisk och modelleringsinformation om Amerikas kol-, järn- och stål- och järnvägsindustri


Frankrikes norra järnväg - Historia

    (d-maps.com)
  • Atlas des colonies françaises, protectorats et territories sous mandat de la France, 1934 (G. Grandidier)
  • Atlas historique de la France depuis César jusqu ’à nos jours (Auguste Longnon, 1907) Samling (Library of Congress) (American Geographical Society Library Digital Map Collection) (David Rumsey Map Collection) (WHKMLA) (Gallica - Bibliothèque nationale de France) (Columbia University) (oldmapsonline.org)
    (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1923) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe , c.1900) (Putzgers Historischer Weltatlas, 1905)
  • Frankrike ca 1035 (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas. C.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas. C.1900) (Droysens. 1886) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926)
  • Frankrike i det trettonde århundradet (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (R. Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (Muir ’s Historical Atlas, 1911) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (R. Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Muir ’s Historical Atlas, 1911) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926 ) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (Charles Colbeck, The Public Schools Historical Atlas, 1905)
  • La France en 1461 (à la mort de Charles VII) (Mirot, Manuel de géographie historique de la France, 1947) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (The British Library) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas and General History, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Muir ’s Historical Atlas, 1911) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886 ) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Lane Poole, Historical Atlas of Modern Europe, c.1900) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (J. Bartholomew, A Literary & amp Historical Atlas of Europe, 1910) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Robert Labberton, New Historical Atlas. 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) ( William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1926) (William Shepherd, Historical Atlas , 1926) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas , 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge. 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Droysens Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas, 1886) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (Cambridge Modern History Atlas, 1912) (US Holocaust Memorial Museum)

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Atlas i Frankrike

La République française à la suite d'un long processus d'évolution étalé sur près de 2 000 ans d’histoire, est un État d’Europe dont le territoire métropolitain est situé en Europe de l’Ouest. La France est-parmi tous les grands États européens-le plus anciennement constitué, autour d’un domaine royal initialement centré sur l’Île-de-France, sa capitale étant Paris.

França es un país de l'Euròpa occidentala, es la pàtria del pòble francés e forma un estat. França es, demèst totes los grands Estats europencs, lo mai ancianament constituat, a l'entorn d'un domeni reial inicialament centrat sus l'Illa-de-França, que sa capitala istorica e culturala es uèi París.

La República Francesa, és un estat d'Europa el territori metropolità del qual és situat en l'Europa de l'oest. França és - dins el conjunt dels països més grans d'Europa - el més antigament constituit, a l'entorn d'un domini reial inicialment centrat en l'illa de França, la seva capital és París. Catalunya-nord esdevé francesa el 1659 amb el tractat dels Pirineus (Tractat no oficial perquè no ha estat mai aprovat per les Corts Catalanes de Barcelona).

Frankriich isch e Land, wo im weschtliche Europa leit. Es het ebbis meh wie sächzig Millione Ywohner un isch 543.965 km² groß un 's isch nooch Russland och dr Ukraine es dritt gröscht Land fun Europa. Es Elsass isch e Stickel fun Frankriich un d'r Sproch, wo mer spricht, isch Elsässerditsch.

De Franska republiken är ett land vars storstadsområde ligger i Västeuropa och som också omfattar olika utomeuropeiska öar och territorier som ligger på andra kontinenter. Metropolitan France sträcker sig från Medelhavet till Engelska kanalen och Nordsjön och från Rhen till Atlanten. Frankrike gränsar till ► Belgien (► Flandern och ► Vallonien), ► Luxemburg, ► Tyskland, ► Schweiz, ► Italien (med ► Aostadalen), ► Monaco, ► Andorra och ► Spanien (med ► Katalonien, ► Navarra och ► Baskien. I några av sina utomeuropeiska departement delar Frankrike också landgränser med ► Brasilien, ► Surinam och ► Sint Maarten (ett konstituerande land i Konungariket Nederländerna). Frankrike är också länkat till ► Storbritannien via kanalen Tunnel, som passerar under Engelska kanalen.
Frankrike omfattar också de utomeuropeiska regionerna/avdelningarna i ► Guadeloupe, ► Franska Guyana, ► Martinique och ► Réunion, den utomeuropeiska kollektiviteten/regionen ► Korsika, samt ► Franska Polynesien, utomeuropeiskt land, ► Nya Kaledonien, entity sui generis, ► Mayotte, departementskollektivitet och de andra utomeuropeiska kollektiviteterna ► Saint-Barthélemy, ► Saint-Martin, ► Saint-Pierre och Miquelon, ► Wallis och Futuna samt de obebodda territorierna ► Clipperton Island och ► Franska södra och Antarktis Land.


Railroaders in Olive Drab: The Military Railway Service i andra världskriget

I juli 1861 demonstrerade förbundsbrigadgeneral Joseph E. Johnston dramatiskt järnvägens betydelse i modern krigföring när han flyttade 12 000 trupper med järnväg från Piemonte Station (nu Delaplane), Virginia, till Manassas Junction, ett avstånd på cirka fem mil, för att förstärka förbundsstyrkorna samlades sydväst om Washington, DC. Flytten tog bara ungefär en tredjedel av tiden det skulle ha tagit för trupperna att täcka den sträckan genom att marschera, och de kom redo att slåss. Förstärkningarna överraskade unionsstyrkorna och bidrog till rebellens seger den 21 juli vid det första slaget vid Bull Run. Det var bara det första försöket att transportera ett stort antal soldater under inbördeskriget med järnväg. Järnvägar var så viktiga att krigsavdelningen organiserade USA: s militära järnvägar och järnvägskonstruktionen för att reparera, driva och underhålla järnvägslinjer när unionens armé flyttade in i konfedererade territorier. Båda organisationerna förlitade sig starkt på erfarna järnvägschefer och ingenjörer som fick uppdraget som volontärofficerare och arbetade under överinseende av unionens armé, generalmajor Montgomery C. Meigs.

Konceptet att ge erfarna järnvägsmän in i armén fortsatte under första världskriget i regi av Military Railway Service (MRS) som drivs av ingenjörskåren. Regelbundna arméöversten befallde ingenjörsregemente organiserade som järnvägsenheter. Professionella järnvägar som beställdes som överstelöjtnanter fungerade som regementschef. Mellan första världskriget bestämde ingenjörskåren att regementet inte var den bästa organisationen för att driva järnvägar. Ingenjörsreserven som var järnvägsmän i sina civila karriärer hjälpte till att designa lämpliga enheter för militära järnvägsoperationer. De bestämde sig för att använda det lägsta organisatoriska elementet i amerikanska järnvägar, divisioner, som grund för den nya organisationen. I en järnvägsavdelning hade en föreståndare ansvaret för att upprätthålla huvudspår, sidospår, terminaler, butiker och strukturer som krävs för att driva tåg över en bestämd del av järnvägslinjen. Divisionen underhåller och driver även lok och bilar. Professionella järnvägar och arméingenjörer designade en järnvägsbataljon som speglade funktionerna i den civila järnvägsavdelningen.

Uppdraget för en järnvägsbataljon var att hantera och underhålla en utsedd del av en militär järnväg i en operateater. Till skillnad från civila järnvägar måste bataljonerna emellertid också vara beredda att förstöra linjen som den opererade. I allmänhet kunde en järnvägsbataljon upprätthålla och driva mellan nittio och 150 miles av enspårig järnväg, även om dess faktiska ansvarsområde under krigstid berodde på den militära situationen. Vid järnvägsoperationer i vänliga områden eller ockuperat område använde bataljonen lokala civila tekniska och skickliga järnvägsanställda för att öka dess kapacitet, men de måste övervakas av militär personal för att skydda mot eventuellt sabotage. Det gav också utmaningar för de engelsktalande amerikanska soldater som inte alltid var bekanta med hur andra länder drev sina järnvägar.

Organisationen av en järnvägsbataljon parallellt med en typisk armébataljon med ett högkvarterskompani och tre eller fyra bokstäver. Varje företag hade en unik organisation med specifika kapacitet som motsvarade organisationen av en civil järnvägsavdelning. Huvudkontoret sände tåg, leveranser och signaler. Företag A reparerat och underhållet spår och tillhörande utrustning som switchar, broar, vattentankar, signalutrustning och byggnader. Företaget hade två plutoner, en för bro- och byggnadsunderhåll och en för att underhålla spåret. Företag B drev rundhuset och reparerade och underhållte rullande materiel - lok och bilar. Det hade också två plutoner, en för att reparera lok, den andra för att reparera bilar. Lok och järnvägsvagnar tilldelades inte bataljonen utan rörde sig genom hela järnvägssystemet efter behov. Kompani C var den största enheten i bataljonen med två plutoner, som var och en hade tjugofem besättningar för att driva tåg, varv och stationer inom bataljonens ansvarsområde. I områden i världen där det fanns ett stort antal elektriska tåg, till exempel Europa, kunde ett kompani D läggas till bataljonen för att upprätthålla elsystemet.

Bataljonorganisationen återspeglade inte bara den civila järnvägsavdelningen, organisationsbordet korrelerade militära positioner med sina civila motsvarigheter. Bataljonschefen, överstelöjtnanten, motsvarade en divisionsinspektör på en kommersiell järnväg. Kompanicheferna, alla kaptener, likställdes med sina motsvarigheter på civila järnvägar: en avdelningsingenjör hade kommando över kompani A, en maskinmästare befallde kompani B och en tågmästare ledde kompani C. Plutonsledare hade liknande utsedda civila specialiteter. Många av de värvade soldaterna var erfarna järnvägsmän som utförde i stort sett samma jobb i armén som de gjorde inom sina civila yrken. Medan tyngdpunkten låg på järnväg, deltog soldaterna i grundläggande stridsträning och bataljonerna genomförde alla disciplinära, fysiska, strids- och tekniska utbildningar i enlighet med lämpliga arméfältmanualer.

För att hitta och utbilda officerare och män för de nya bataljonerna, utvecklade Corps of Engineers en anslutningsplan där kommersiella järnvägar i USA sponsrade specifika enheter i MRS. Enligt planen nominerade en kommersiell järnväg officerare baserat på deras tekniska uppgifter. Efter att ha genomgått en fysisk undersökning fick de uppdraget som reservofficerare i armén och tilldelades lämpliga positioner i bataljonen sponsrad av järnvägen för att tillhandahålla en kadrre av professionella järnvägsmän.

Nästa högre högkvarter för en järnvägsoperativ bataljon var en järnvägs grand division som motsvarade kontoret för en generalinspektör i en civil järnväg och övervakade driften av flera divisioner. En stor division innefattade vanligtvis tre eller fyra operativa bataljoner, en butiksbataljon och ett basförrådsföretag. Butiksbataljoner hanterade stora reparationer, konstruktion och översyn av utrustning medan basdepåföretaget levererade leveranser. Operateatrar med mer än en stor division inrättade ett MRS -huvudkontor.

Den 18 juni 1941 organiserade armén den 711: e järnvägsoperationsbataljonen, den första i sitt slag, vid Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Till skillnad från andra järnvägsbataljoner hade det inget civilt företag som sponsrade det. Avsikten var att rotera officerare och värvade män genom bataljonen för korta turer i tjänst för utbildning. Officerer från tio olika amerikanska järnvägar bemannade bataljonen, och en grupp med tjugoåtta värvade män kom från Engineer School Detachment i Fort Belvoir. Flera hundra män med järnvägserfarenhet tilldelades också från Engineer Replacement Center på posten. Inom fyrtioåtta dagar efter aktivering hade bataljonen rehabiliterat den länge försummade fyra och en halv mils järnvägen för Quartermaster som tjänstgjorde på posten. Arbetet omfattade att byta ut tusentals band, reparera flera broar och installera tjugo kulvertar. Nästa uppdrag var lite mer utmanande.

Bataljonen flyttade till Camp Claiborne, Louisiana, i augusti 1941, där den började arbeta med en träningsanläggning för järnvägsoperativa bataljoner som de kallades till aktiv tjänst. Arbetet började använda hyrd jordbearbetningsutrustning som drivs av soldater på 711: e tills arméutrustning blev tillgänglig. Det första spåret lades i september, och i oktober anlände de 91: a och 93: e ingenjörsbataljonerna, båda bemannade av afroamerikanska soldater, för att hjälpa till med konstruktionen. Mer än 6000 trupper arbetade på linjen. Under byggandet av järnvägen arbetade 98: e, 383d och 331: e ingenjörsbataljonerna, liksom flera tippbilsföretag, med projektet. Den 11 juli 1942 markerade en "gyllene spik" -ceremoni slutförandet av femtio mils gradering och spårläggning mellan Camp Claiborne och Fort Polk. Känd som C & ampP Railroad för Claiborne och Polk, kallade praktikanter det "Brott och straff" eller "Värsta järnvägen på jorden" eftersom det byggdes på instabil mark, vilket gjorde urspårningar vanliga. För att göra träningen mer realistisk sprängdes de tjugofem broarna längs linjen regelbundet så att underhållsteam från bataljonerna i träning kunde bygga om dem. C & ampP inkluderade järnvägsgårdar i varje ände av linjen och motorhusfaciliteter på Camp Claiborne. Telegraf- och telefonlinjen som används för att skicka tåg restes av den 26: e Signal Construction Battalion. Rullande materiel inkluderade nio oljebrännande lok och nästan 100 bilar, inklusive bussar, gondoler, boxvagnar, plattbilar, kylbilar och cabooser.

Efter att USA gick in i andra världskriget i december 1941 aktiverade armén ytterligare järnvägsoperativa bataljoner under anslutningsplanen. In March 1942, the 727th Railway Operating Battalion, sponsored by the Southern Railway Company, became the first battalion to be activated after the war began, followed in April by the 713th, affiliated with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company. Most of the officers and many of the enlisted men were experienced railroaders, but the new battalions included men drawn from Army training centers who needed to be trained. The newly organized battalions also had to learn how to operate efficiently as units, so the War Department contracted with commercial railroads to provide on-the-job training. For example, an Army train crew would accompany a train manned by civilians to learn operating rules and railroad techniques. The same procedure was followed for other specialties in the battalion with soldiers working alongside their civilian counterparts to learn the basics of railroading. The 713th trained on the Santa Fe line near Clovis, New Mexico, while the 727th went to Camp Shelby, Mississippi, to train on the Southern Railroad between Meridian, Mississippi, and New Orleans, Louisiana. When the 730th Railway Operating Battalion was activated in May, its sponsoring company, the Pennsylvania Railroad, trained the unit on its line near Fort Wayne, Indiana.

As the war effort increased, the War Department activated additional railway units including grand divisions to coordinate operations in overseas theaters of operations and shop battalions to support the operating battalions. In November 1942, the Transportation Corps assumed responsibility for the MRS. During World War II, the MRS operated in every theater of operations where there were American forces. At its peak, it included eleven grand divisions, thirty-three railway operating battalions, and eleven railway shop battalions. A variety of engineer, signal, and military police units provided support to the railroaders.

In September 1942, a detachment of men from the 713th and 727th Railway Operating Battalions became the first soldier railroaders to deploy outside the contiguous United States when they left Clovis, New Mexico, to assume operations of the White Pass and Yukon Railroad in Alaska. In November, the unit was designated the 770th Railway Operating Detachment. In December, two railway operating battalions deployed to theaters overseas. The 711th, which built the C&P Railroad in Louisiana, went to Iran while the 727th headed for North Africa.

The 711th Railway Operating Battalion arrived in Khorramshahr, Iran, a port city on the Persian Gulf, and began operations in January 1943 making up trains and moving them out of the port before taking responsibility for sections of the line. The 711th was joined by the 730th Railway Operating Battalion (Pennsylvania Railroad) and two shop battalions, the 754th (Southern Pacific Company) and 762d (American Locomotive Company, Baldwin Locomotive Company, Electro-Motive Corporation) Railway Shop Battalions. The 702d Railway Grand Division, staffed mainly by railroad men from the Union Pacific Railroad, coordinated the operations of the four battalions in operating the Iranian State Railway which carried three out of five tons of Lend-Lease material shipped to the Soviet Union through the Persian Corridor during World War II. Although the railway operating battalions were designed to operate ninety to 150 miles of line, in Iran the 711th operated 388 miles, and the 730th 289 miles. Creation of the 1st Provisional Railway Operating Battalion, later designated the 791st Railway Operating Battalion, by taking men from the battalions already in Iran plus personnel from other units in the command who had prewar railroad experience, helped reduce the distances. The new unit took over a 221-mile stretch of mountainous country, leaving the 711th with 258 miles and the 730th with 198, still more than the doctrinal guidelines.

During the time the MRS operated the Iranian State Railway, it handled more than four million long tons of freight. In addition to the freight, special passenger trains carried 16,000 Iranian military personnel, 14,000 Polish war refugees, 40,000 British troops, and 15,000 Russian ex-prisoners of war. During the Muslim holy days from 22 February to 21 April 1944, 21,000 pilgrims traveled on trains operated by the MRS. The last American soldier railroaders left Iran in July 1945.

When the Americans and British began planning for an invasion of North Africa, logisticians estimated that it would require thirty-four trains a day to move 5,000 tons a month from the ports of debarkation at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers to keep Allied forces supplied. The MRS deployed five operating and two shop battalions to keep the required supplies moving. The first railway operating battalion, the 727th, arrived in Africa in December 1942. In January 1943, the 701st Railway Grand Division, sponsored by the New York Central Railroad, was activated at Fort Snelling, Minnesota. After a brief training period in St. Paul monitoring troop trains and studying car records and other documents in the Twin City terminals, the headquarters traveled by train to New York where it boarded the USS Orizaba as part of the Allied forces bound for North Africa. By May, the 701st was in Casablanca where it coordinated the work of three railway operating battalions, the 715th (Illinois Central Railroad), 719th (Texas and New Orleans Railroad Company), and 759th (Missouri Pacific Railroad).

Railroading in North Africa proved to be a challenge. Trains were operated by British, French, and American crews assisted by Arab civilians. With a variety of languages among the railroaders, the crew often used hand signals, although that was not always a solution. For example, the U.S. signal for “go” or “highball it” in railroad terms meant “stop!” in the French system used in North Africa. Another quirk was that French locomotives in North Africa did not have seats for engineers or firemen as American ones did, so crews had to stand for hours on end while they were underway.

In spite of the difficulties, the MRS was moving about 90,000 tons of freight a week by June 1943. At its peak the MRS operated 1,905 miles of railway in North Africa. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, impressed with the work of the soldier-railroaders, wrote that “When we went into North Africa the railway could deliver a maximum of 900 tons of supplies…Yankee energy and modern American methods of operation…increased the daily tonnage to 3000.”

After freeing North Africa from German occupation the Allies’ next move was to Sicily, and MRS personnel went with them. Three days after the initial landings on 10 July 1943 the 727th Railway Operating Battalion went ashore at Licata, Sicily, and immediately began work on the Sicilian railway. Lieutenant General George S. Patton, Jr. later wrote that the battalion “organized national rail workers, located equipment, had steam up, and made a reconnaissance of the rail lines four hours after landing.” In its first twenty-four hours of operations, the 727th moved 400 tons of supplies forward to the 3d Infantry Division. By the third day it was moving 800 tons. During the campaign in Sicily, the 727th operated 1,373 miles of railway using 300 locomotives and 3,500 freight cars that carried an average of 3,400 tons a day to supply Seventh Army.

On 9 September 1943, the Allies made their first landing on the European mainland at Salerno, Italy. After encountering heavy German resistance, they spent the rest of the month building up men and supplies in the beachhead in preparation for an offensive to capture the port city of Naples. Three days after the first Allied troops entered Naples, the advance party of the 703d Railway Grand Division (Atlantic Coast Railroad Company) reached the port only to find that the combination of Allied bombing and German demolition had left the rail yard in shambles. Technical Sergeant Louis L. Russel of the 713th Railway Operating Battalion described the scene on Wednesday 6 October: “Charred and twisted cars were strewn around haphazardly, with lengths of rail cross ties still attached, pointing toward the sky.” It was a mess, but the next day, First Lieutenant R.H. Anderson, a yardmaster from Newton, Kansas, was optimistic when he said, “I believe we can get a train out of this by Sunday.” With everybody in the battalion, including conductors, engineers, and firemen working to clear the debris, Anderson proved correct. On Saturday, a test train consisting of an old Italian locomotive pushing five cars moved four miles out of the yard. Four days later, six trains moving an average of 450 tons each, rolled to the forward railhead.

With the rail yard back in operation, Naples became the primary port for supplying Fifth Army. From January through September 1944, an average of 136,567 tons of freight a month moved out of Naples by rail. By July 1944, all of the MRS troops that had been in North Africa were in Italy operating 2,478 miles of railway with an average of 250 military trains a day in addition to civilian passenger and freight service. Fifth Army commander Lieutenant General Mark Clark recognized the contributions of the soldier-railroaders in Italy when he presented them with a plaque in 1944 that read in part: “The services performed by the Allied Force Military Railway Service have contributed materially to the military operation of the Fifth Army.”

At the same time Allied forces were fighting in North Africa and Italy, they began to build up forces in England for an invasion of France. In July 1942, the MRS organized the 761st Transportation Company at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, with men taken from the 713th, 727th, and 730th Railway Operating Battalions. In September, the company deployed to Scotland where it operated the Melbourne Military Railway and provided switching service to depots being established by American forces. The first railway operating battalion to arrive in England was the 729th (New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company) in July 1943. By June 1944, when Allied forces landed at Normandy, the MRS had two grand divisions, three operating battalions, and four shop battalions in England. While in England, the American railroaders conducted technical training, prepared American steam and diesel locomotives for use on the continent, and assembled prefabricated railcars shipped from the United States. They also operated sections of the British rail system that carried American troops and supplies.

As in Italy, railroads and yards were prime targets for Allied bombers in the months before the landings in Normandy, France. Two years of bombing raids had destroyed railroad facilities and twisted tracks into extraordinary shapes. Eleven days after the Allies landed on 6 June 1944, a small detachment of MRS troops arrived to assess the railroad facilities in the beachhead, estimate damage to rails and yards, and locate available locomotives. Using a Jeep equipped with flanged wheels, the detachment surveyed the lines from the landing area to the port of Cherbourg. On 2 July, the 729th Railway Operating Battalion arrived in Normandy and took over operations at the Cherbourg terminals. Assisted by French engine crews and volunteers, the American railroaders repaired roundhouses, shop buildings, engines, and rolling stock while Army engineers cleared the rail line from Cherbourg to Carentan. Nine days after arriving in France, the 729th operated the first passenger train between the two cities.

The 720th Railway Operating Battalion (Chicago and North Western Railway) arrived in France on 15 July and began to rehabilitate and operate approximately sixty-two miles of track between Bayeux and Lisieux. Three days later, the 757th Railway Shop Battalion (Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad) went to work at Cherbourg. In August, another three operating battalions and two more shop battalions arrived. By the end of the month, the MRS was operating 1,006 miles of track and had carried 29,450 passengers on 251 trains and moved 136,169 tons of military freight on 991 trains.

On 15 August, the Allies landed in southern France. One of the goals of that operation was to open the ports of Toulon and Marseilles and establish a southern line of communications to augment the flow of equipment and supplies to the Allied armies in Europe. MRS troops supporting the operation came from Italy. Two of the most experienced operating battalions, the 713th and 727th, deployed to Marseilles and began operations at the end of August. Unlike the situations in Italy and northern France, the ports were not heavily damaged by Allied bombing or German demolitions. In October, the MRS operated 1,897 trains hauling 640,561 tons of freight in support of the Sixth Army Group. General Jacob Devers, commanding the army group, commended MRS troops when he wrote: “I want to send my congratulations to you and your splendid achievement in opening and maintaining the railroad system in southern France since the invasion of our forces.”

Grand divisions, operating battalions, and shop battalions continued to deploy to both northern and southern France to support the Allied forces rolling into Germany. As new battalions arrived, the ones already on the continent moved forward behind the advancing armies. In March 1945, the 729th, the first operating battalion to arrive in France, began transporting rail and construction material to Army engineers building a bridge over the Rhine River at Wesel, Germany. On 9 April, the 720th operated the first train across the new bridge. In its first thirty days of operation, 273,141 tons of freight moved east across the bridge while another 403,656 tons and 309,000 displaced persons moved west.

In May 1945, when the war in Europe ended, the MRS included seven grand divisions, twenty-four operating battalions, seven shop battalions, and a variety of depot and maintenance units as well as eight battalions and two separate companies of military police. Between D-Day at Normandy and V-E Day, MRS loaded and moved more than eighteen million tons of military freight. On 7 June 1945, American railroaders were operating 1,937 locomotives, 34,588 freight cars, and 25,150 miles of track in western Europe. Demobilization of railway units began shortly after V-E Day. The largest contingent of American soldier railroaders was in western Europe with more than 26,600 officers and enlisted men serving there by the end of the war. The last MRS unit, the 716th Railway Operating Battalion (Southern Pacific Company) left Europe in February 1946.

In addition to Europe and North Africa, MRS units operated railroads in India, Burma, and the Philippine Islands. Railway units in India supported construction of the Ledo Road and the airfield used for the airlift over the Himalaya Mountains that provided logistical support to the Chinese. They also supported British and the American forces fighting the Japanese in Burma. The 705th Railway Grand Division (Southern Pacific Company) oversaw military rail operations in India and Burma. The division, along with five railway operating battalions, the 721st (New York Central Railroad), 725th (Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company), 726th (Wabash Railroad Company), 745th (Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad), and 748th (Texas and Pacific Railway company) all sailed from Los Angeles aboard the SS Mariposa in December 1943. After thirty-one days at sea they arrived at Bombay, India, in January 1944 to begin operation of sections of the Bengal and Assam Railway.

In India, each of the five operating battalions managed an average of 133 miles of railway. By implementing American techniques, the tonnage carried by the Bengal and Assam Railway increased forty-six percent in the first twenty-six days after the MRS took over. Compared to American railroads, the Indian system was relatively primitive. A unique aspect of railroading in India was the use of elephants to switch cars when locomotives were not available. India also had little in the way of telegraph, telephone, or signal communications. American railroaders installed modern communications equipment to coordinate the increased train movements. They also added 100 miles of double track to facilitate traffic flow. The improvements paid off. Between February 1944 and September 1945, the MRS moved 6,217,143 tons of freight and operated 5,559 passenger trains. The last American railway units left India in October 1945.

There were no requirements for railway units in the Pacific Theater until the Allies reached the Philippine Islands in late 1944. Shortly after the amphibious landings on the island of Luzon in January 1945, a company of MRS troops arrived on the island and began to rehabilitate the rail lines so they could operate the Manila Railway Company. The railroad was in terrible condition due to lack of maintenance, American bombing, and Japanese destruction. While Army engineers rebuilt bridges along the rail line, railway troops repaired locomotives and railcars. The Manila Railway Company had about 712 miles of track on Luzon, but the American forces used only 234 of them designated the Luzon Military Railway. The first train on the line ran on 19 January for a distance of about thirty miles. Because there was no coal the locomotives burned driftwood, pulpwood, and coconut hulls.

Railway supplies began to reach Luzon in February, including locomotives, cars, shop machines, and track material. Eventually fifty-three American-built locomotives and 990 cars reached the island. Several mobile railway workshops deployed to Luzon in March, and in April, two operating battalions, the 737th (New York Central) and the 749th (New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad Company) arrived to operate sections of the Luzon Military Railway. By October, MRS troops in the Philippines reached its peak strength of 3,200 officers and enlisted men and 6,010 civilians. Between 1 June and 31 December, they operated a total of 7,410 trains with 48,131 cars. The Army returned control of the Luzon Military Railway back to the Manila Railway Company on 1 January 1946, and the last MRS personnel left the Philippines three months later.

The Military Railway Service was a remarkable team effort made possible by the Affiliation Program the Army and American railroaders developed in the 1930s and implemented as the clouds of global war appeared on the horizon. During World War II the service operated and maintained railroads in Europe, North Africa, Asia, and the Pacific that totaled more than 22,000 miles. Some 43,500 soldier-railroaders, most of whom brought years of experience with them, served in the Army in every theater of operations moving personnel and freight, often under enemy fire and through extreme weather conditions. Their efforts proved vital to the Allied victory.


2000-present day

Metros and monorails are thriving within cities. Online ticketing system started in 2000’s and is one of the major ways of booking train ticket, today. 4.5 billion km was additionally covered in just ten years (2001-2010). Now, the train tracks cover more than 120,000 km of area in India and special amenities like Wi-Fi, customer information system, ergogenic designs and green technologies have taken Indian Railways to the next level.

Recent developments of railway system include technological amenities in unreserved class, high horsepower electric locomotive, GPS based passenger information system, sliding doors, private catering services and many others. (Source)

There is always a next step for Indian Railway. By 2019, more than 7000 stations around the world would receive free Wi-Fi service. The technology team is diving deep into finding greener source of powers.


Wheelchairs

Most, if not all, TGV trains have dedicated spaces for wheelchairs, however, they are all located in the first class cars. But fear not, the price is that of second class, so you’ll not be paying extra to travel with a wheelchair. There’s even space for 2 fellow travellers, and the wheelchair area is located close to the wheelchair-accessible toilets.

Almost all stations in France are now fully equipped to accommodate wheelchairs, including ramps and elevators. But it’s important and highly recommendable that you notify the railroad that you are planning to travel with a wheelchair.


North Railway of France - History

  • 600 - The colony of Massalia is founded by the Ancient Greeks. This would later become the city of Marseille, the oldest city in France.
  • 400 - Celtic tribes begin to settle in the region.
  • 122 - Southeastern France (called Provence) is taken over by the Roman Republic.
  • 52 - Julius Caesar conquers Gaul (most of modern day France).




The Storming of the Bastille


Napoleon is Defeated in Russia

Brief Overview of the History of France

The land that today makes up the country of France has been settled for thousands of years. In 600 BC, a portion of the Greek Empire settled in Southern France and founded the city that is today Marseille, the oldest city in France. At the same time, Celtic Gauls were becoming prominent in other areas of France. The Gauls would sack the city of Rome in 390 BC. Later, the Romans would conquer Gaul and the area would become a productive part of the Roman Empire until the 4th century.


In the 4th century, the Franks, which is where the name France comes from, began to take power. In 768 Charlemagne united the Franks and began to expand the kingdom. He was named the Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope and is today considered the founder of both the French and German monarchies. The French monarchy would continue to be a great power in Europe for the next 1000 years.

In 1792, the French Republic was proclaimed by the French Revolution. This didn't last long, however, as Napoleon grabbed power and made himself Emperor. He then proceeded to conquer most of Europe. Napoleon was later defeated and in 1870 the Third Republic was declared.

France suffered greatly in both World War I and World War II. During World War II France was defeated and occupied by the Germans. Allied forces liberated the country in 1944 after four years of German rule. A new constitution was set up by Charles de Gaulle and the Fourth Republic was formed.


“Cock o’ the North”

COMPETITION is always stimulating. There is no question that the competition of other forms of transport has stirred the locomotive engineers considerably. Diesel rail- cars, for example, have established a new mode of high speed transport on rails. Electrification, where traffic conditions are sufficiently dense to warrant the heavy expenditure involved, has been carried out on an extensive scale. Competition from outside the railways, on the roads, and in the air has to be fought unceasingly.

But “King Coal” is determined to hold his own. On a thermal efficiency basis the steam locomotive of traditional design does not rank very high. Even in the best conditions, not much more than seven per cent of the heat units developed by the burning of the coal on the locomotive fire- grate is turned into useful work in moving the locomotive and its train.

There are, as previously explained, many reasons to account for this figure. The use of the exhaust steam to furnish a draught for the fire necessarily means that power for the purpose must be thrown to waste out of the chimney, whereas in a stationary power- station the steam would be condensed, and its heat, at least, would be trapped. Similarly the limitations imposed in length and diameter on the locomotive boiler involve the loss up the chimney of much of the heat from the fire.

Some years ago the locomotive engineers of the Paris- Orleans Railway of France made an exhaustive study of all the features of locomotive design which have a bearing on efficiency. Their study concentrated on the “flow” of the steam from the time it left the boiler until the moment of its rejection, as exhaust, from the chimney. It was realized that much could be done by the use of larger and more direct steam- pipes and passages, and of improved inlet and exhaust valves to the cylinders, to facilitate that flow. Measures could also be taken to speed up the circulation of the water in the boiler, and this would increase the capacity to raise steam.

An existing “Pacific” locomotive was rebuilt in the Paris- Orleans workshops at Tours to embody the results of this research. The effect was startling. The reconditioned engine, though weighing no more than one of the London and North Eastern “Pacifics”, created new standards of combined speed and weight haulage on what was already a very speedy line. It was proved that trains weighing over 800 tons could be hauled not merely to scheduled time but well within it.

HERALD OF A NEW ORDER. The striking appearance of the great LNER locomotive is indicative of the revolutionary changes in design that she embodies. The “Cock o’ the North” was the first eight- coupled locomotive built for express passenger service in Great Britain.

A series of these earlier “Pacifics” was reconditioned, and the next experiment was to convert another “Pacific” to the 4- 8- 0 wheel arrangement, with a similar boiler, cylinders, and valves, for working over the extremely difficult route through Central France from Vierzon (to which point the trains are worked electrically from Paris) to Toulouse. Again the results were successful.

These developments attracted attention all over France. Other French railways followed suit, and as some of the Paris- Orleans steam locomotive stock was becoming superfluous, owing to the extension of main line electrification from Paris to Tours as well as Vierzon, the Paris- Orleans rebuilt many more of its “Pacifics” for transfer to the Nord and the Est Companies. The news of these Paris- Orleans transformations spread to England when the London and North Eastern Railway was about to build new locomotives for service over the heavily- graded east coast main line between Edinburgh and Aberdeen.

This is one of the most difficult main routes, from the locomotive point of view, in Great Britain. Gradients as steep as 1 in 70 abound. There are also numerous sharp curves demanding reductions of speed, most of them at the beginning of long adverse gradients so that the drivers are compelled to slow down severely just when they are in most need of the impetus for the climb that follows.

THE LEADING DIMENSIONS of this 110- ton locomotive, as given in these diagrams were supplied by the courtesy of the LNER Chief Mechanical Engineer’s Department.

From Inverkeithing, for example, after slowing round the curve to twenty miles an hour, drivers of south- bound trains have an ascent for two miles at 1 in 70 on to the Forth Bridge, and north- bound trains face a similar, though shorter, grade up to Dalgetty.

From every intermediate stop, also, the trains have to accelerate up steep gradients, in some cases, indeed - as in both directions from Arbroath and Montrose, and southwards from Aberdeen - long and arduous climbs. The consequence has been that most of the heavy modern East Coast expresses have needed “double- heading” - that is, the provision of an assistant locomotive - over this section. The new type of engine had to be sufficiently powerful to obviate this.

It was decided that to give an increased tractive force to enable the engines to get away more rapidly from these frequent stops and slowings, and also to move these heavy trains at higher speeds up the banks, the driving wheels should be reduced in diameter from the 6 ft 8 in of the “Pacifics” to 6 ft 2 in, and the diameter of the cylinders increased from the 19 in of the high- pressure “Pacifics” to 21 in. The next essential was to provide greater adhesion, so that this increased power might be transmitted to the rails without slipping, and the decision was made to use eight- coupled instead of six- coupled driving wheels.

These points are important, as “Cock o’ the North” was not designed, as has been widely supposed, for high- speed long- distance running, but for the difficult conditions of the Edinburgh- Aberdeen route. It was the first eight- coupled locomotive built for express passenger service in Great Britain.

However desirable it might have been to provide the engine with a leading four- wheeled bogie, the increased length would have made it necessary to replace the turntables along the route by tables of larger diameter. It was not thought necessary to incur this additional expense, and the locomotive was therefore designed, like the “Moguls”, with a two- wheeled radial truck at the leading end. Another pair of wheels at the rear end carries the immense firebox, and the wheel arrangement of the engine is thus the 2- 8- 2, or “ikado” type, as it is generally known.

Examination of the internal economy of the “Cock o’ the North” shows that the designer of this notable locomotive - Mr. H. N. Gresley, the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the LNER, - has adapted to British conditions certain of the principles which proved so effective on the Paris- Orleans Railway, and has incorporated them in the engine.

THE TENDER contains an automatic water pickup apparatus (shown dotted) to the left of the coal- space.

HEAD- ON DIMENSIONS should be compared with the fine view of this locomotive shown below.

The fine sectional picture of the engine, which appears below, reveals what a mass of detail has been crowded within the smooth external casing of the locomotive. It also shows the difficulties experienced by the designer of the modern locomotive in compressing, within the narrow limits of the British loading gauge, all the working parts of an engine capable of exerting over 2,000 hp on the draw- bar of it train.

The magnificent centre- spread to this photogravure supplement: a fine broadside photograph of No.2001 and a corresponding sectioned cut- away drawing of the locomotive. In addition to the explanatory tabs, there are a further 52 numbered items, each identified by the key in the top right hand corner of the centre- spread.

At a working pressure of 220 lb per sq in, steam passes from the boiler through a series of long narrow slots up into a cavity of pressed steel, which has been riveted on to the top of the boiler at the rear of the dome. From the regulator the steam passes into a main steam- pipe having the unusually large diameter of 7 in. The next stage of its journey is through a 43- element superheater, from which it is led down to the cylinders.

Large poppet- valves of 8- in diameter admit the steam to the cylinders, and 9- in valves are provided for the exhaust the valves are worked by a rotary cam arrangement, instead of the ordinary Walschaerts valve- motion.

The last stage of the journey of the steam is into a blast pipe which branches into two, leading up to a double chimney which has three telescopic sections from the bottom to the top, and is known as the “K.C.” blast- pipe, after its designer, Monsieur K. Chapelon [ sic ], of the Paris- Orleans Railway.

All these arrangements so facilitate the passage of the steam that the engine is capable of doing high- speed work with heavy trains at no more than ten per cent cut- off - that is to say, steam is admitted for one- tenth of the stroke only, and for the remaining nine- tenths does its work by expansion.

FACTS AND FIGURES OF THE “COCK O' THE NORTH”. Cylinders (three) diameter 21in stroke 26 in. Driving wheels, diameter 6 ft 2 in. Heating surface, tubes and flues, 2,477 sq ft firebox, 237 sq ft superheater, 776.5 sq ft total, 3,490.5 sq ft. Firegrate area, 50 sq ft. Working pressure, per sq in, 220 lb. Tractive effort (at 85 per cent working pressure), 43,460 lb. Adhesion weight, 80½ tons. Weight of engine (in working order) 110¼ tons. Coal capacity of tender, 8 tons. Water, 5,000 gals. Weight of engine and tender, 165½ tons. Length of engine and tender (overall), 73 ft 8½ in.

One result of this ultra- short cut- off working is that the pressure at which the steam is finally exhausted is very low, and there would be a tendency for it to drift along the top level of the boiler and obscure the front windows of the driver’s cab, were special precautions not taken to prevent this. It is here that the external casing at the front end of the engine, with its wings on either side of the smoke- box, serves both as streamlining and also to make a strong up- current of ail when the engine is running at speed, which lifts the exhaust steam from the double chimney, and carries it well clear of the cab.

The cab- front also is V- shaped, to assist in the streamlining effect, but, despite the enormous size of the boiler, there is an excellent look- out ahead. Inside the external boiler casing there is found another aid to efficiency in the feed- water heater, of the A.C.F.I. type, which uses some of the exhaust steam in order to heat up the feed- water on its way from the tender into the boiler. This means that less heat is required inside the boiler to convert the feed- water into steam.

A novelty is provided in the shape of a chime whistle in front of the chimney, which was the only convenient place in which it could be put. The tender is of the standard LNER eight- wheeled type. “Cock o’ the North” is the heaviest locomotive built, up to the time of writing, for passenger service in Great Britain, and weighs 110¼ tons in running trim with the tender the total weight is 165½ tons.

Shortly after the “Cock o’ the North” had emerged from Doncaster Works, a test run was made, with a train weighing 650 tons, from King’s Cross to Barkstone, just beyond Grantham, and back. The long gradient to Stoke Summit, partly at 1 in 200 and partly at 1 in 178, was surmounted at an average speed of a mile- a- minute for the whole distance, and without speed at any time falling below 56 miles an hour. The engine developed at the draw- bar the hitherto unprecedented figure for Great Britain of 2,090 hp.

Whether we like it or not, locomotive fashions are fast altering. Both internally and externally revolutionary changes are being made, and from recent developments - of which the “Cock o’ the North” is only one example - it is clear that we must accustom ourselves to locomotives unlike those which have become familiar.

Those who lament the radical external changes in locomotive design sometimes forget that higher and even higher speeds are being called for in this hurrying age. The greater the speed the more potent is the resistance of the air through which the vehicle passes. Streamlining has become essential for all vehicles designed for rapid motion, and we must expect, therefore, that streamlining should be extended to the steam locomotives of the future. It is not the aim of the designer merely to obtain higher speeds. If he can lessen the resistance at high speeds coal consumption will be reduced, and efficiency will be increased proportionately. The “Cock o’ the North” is one of the heralds of the new order of things in the locomotive world.

FROM THE FRONT the feature of the “Cock o’ the North” that chiefly interests the layman is the pair of side- plates, curving upwards to form “shoulders”. The object of these side- plates is to aid visibility from the cab- windows when the engine is running. Owing to the shape of the side- plates a strong current of air sweeps upwards, carrying the exhaust steam and smoke with it clear of the cab- windows.


Titta på videon: FRANSKA REVOLUTIONEN - HÄNDELSEFÖRLOPPET (Maj 2022).


Kommentarer:

  1. Balduin

    Frivilligt accepterar jag. Ett intressant tema, jag kommer att delta. Jag vet att vi tillsammans kan komma till ett rätt svar.

  2. Mezishicage

    Ursäkta att jag blandar mig... Jag förstår den frågan. Vi kommer att överväga.

  3. Cristoval

    Denna mycket bra idé kommer att vara praktiskt.

  4. Ojo

    Ja

  5. Faegan

    Denna information är inte sant

  6. Anton

    Jag ber om ursäkt, men enligt min mening tar du fel. Jag föreslår det att diskutera. Skriv till mig i PM, vi kommer att prata.

  7. Kigagore

    Enligt min mening har du fel. Jag erbjuder mig att diskutera det. Skriv till mig i PM.



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